| Austro-Hungarian Empire|
|Head of State||Franz Joseph I (1848-1916)|
|Head of Government|| Minister-President|
|Appearances|| "The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter"|
"His Last Bow"
The Austro-Hungarian Empire was a country in central Europe. Its capital was Vienna. It was bordered by Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west; the German Empire and Bohemia to the north; the Russian Empire to the northeast; Rumania, Serbia, Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire to the southeast; and Italy to the southwest. The empire was cobbled together from a number of the diverse territories ruled by the Habsburg emperors, including Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Croatia, some Italian territory, and parts of the Balkans. Nevertheless, it was a declining power, and its diverse population was deeply riven by ethnic tensions; and its ruler during the second half of the 19th century, Franz Joseph, spent much of his reign attempting to quell nationalist uprisings within his territory.
After managing to avoid capture by Sherlock Holmes in London, Harold Latimer and his accomplice Wilson Kemp fled to continental Europe with Sophy Kratides as a prisoner. Holmes and Watson heard nothing more from them until a newspaper reported the death of the two by stabbing in Budapest. Though the Hungarian police announced the two had likely stabbed each other in an argument, Holmes was not convinced, and maintained that only Sophy could tell how the wrongs done to her and her brother Paul came to be avenged.
As part of his plot to destabilize Europe and start a world war, Professor James Moriarty orchestrated a number of incidents to create unrest in the fractious Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1889 he arranged for the death of the Austrian crown prince, Rudolf, in an apparent suicide; sometime later he arranged for an apparent nationalist bombing of Vienna. When hostility between France and Germany led to an international peace conference being arranged in Switzerland (a ploy that was unbeknownst to everyone only the final piece of Moriarty's plot), Austria sent Archduke Karl Ludwig, brother of the Emperor, and an ambassador as diplomats to the peace talks.
Largest cities, 1907